Exaggerated irrational thinking that can lead to anxiety/depression - or continue the state of anxiety/depression. This causes people to have a wrong idea about reality - often a negative one. It reinforces negative thoughts and emotions. Part of the CBT model.
- Black or white thinking: Everything is good or bad - no in-between.
- Over generalization: Creating sweeping generalizations from one event. Eg. I failed this exam, so I'm a bad student.
- Cognitive Filtering: Only looking at the negative aspects of something.
- Disqualifying the good: Finding rational to ignore and minimize the good things. Eg. "Anyone could have done that."
- Jumping to conclusions: Coming to conclusions with very little data.
- Mind Reading: Guessing others thoughts/mental state - usually in a negative light for oneself.
- Fortune telling: Predicting (usually bad) outcomes
- Emotional Reasoning: I feel this, so it must be true
- Rigid Rule Keeping: Have a list of shoulds and musts that can't be broken.
- Catastrophising / Worst case scenario-ing: Imagining/preparing for the worst case scenario.
- Labeling/Self Labeling: Close to Generalization. Labeling oneself or others based on a single event.