Personality Psychology

Branch of psychology that studies personality and its variations. These show how individuals differ from each other.

Major Theories...

  • Trait Theory
  • Psycho-dynamic Theory
  • Humanistic Theory
    • They reject personality tests, and relay on interviews
    • Their process is to ask how you would ideally like to be
    • And how you are currently
    • The close these two responses are, the better off state you are in
  • Evolutionary Psychology
  • Behavioral Psychology
    • Personality comes from the interactions with the environment
  • Social Cognitive Theory
    • Behavior is explained as guided by expectation about the world and other people. Thinking and feeling is given the most importance.

Philosophy of Personality

The scales that should be kept in mind when thinking about personality...

  • Free will vs Determinism: How much of the behavior was chosen vs unconscious/environmental.
  • Nature vs Nurture
  • Uniqueness vs Universality: Gordon Allport, Maslow(of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs), Carl Rogers focus on the uniqueness of individuals. Behaviorists and Cognitive theorists, however, emphasize the universal principles.
  • Active vs Reactive: Do individuals act on initiative or outside stimuli. Or are they passively shaped by their environment.
  • Optimistic vs Pessimistic