Stoicism is a Greek philosophy that aims to teach how to be content no matter what the external circumstances are.

It teaches that happiness comes from attaining virtue or "living according to nature". They thought that nature has a "Divine Principle". This is not exactly a supernatural thing - it can be thought of as embodied in nature. In modern times, we can think of it as science. This lead them to believe in a Deterministic Universe - but also in Soft Determinism.

A part of this "Divine Principle" is there in everyone - and it can be used to respond freely and consciously to whatever fate brings. This builds up one of the key tenets of Stoicism...

Some things are up to us and some things are not up to us. Epictetus

If you link your happiness to things outside your control, you will suffer.


Even though Stoicism originated in Greece, most of our knowledge comes from the work of later roman philosophers like...

  • Seneca
  • Epictetus
  • Marcus Aurelius

The original Greek philosophers were...

  • Zeno of Citium(334 - 262 BC)
  • Chrysippus(279 - 206 BC)


  • Dichotomy of Control
  • Stoic Sage: The highest ideal of stoicism - someone who will be content even if they were tortured to death. No one reaches this state - its something you aim for.
  • Memento Mori: "Remember your mortality". No matter how bad things are, you can find comfort in the fact that it will end. And no matter how great things are right now, you can die some day.
  • Amor Fate: "Love your fate". Be content by how the world is right now. Do not link your happiness on the world being a certain way. Eg. I'll be happy if I get a better job.
  • Negative Visualisation: Imagine the worst possible outcome - and you'll be content with whatever actually happens.