Theory of Mind
The ability to believe that others have an unobservable mental state. This is critical for social interactions, communication, empathy, morality, self-consciousness. We understand other people by ascribing mental states to them (that is, surmising what is happening in their mind).
One of the tests for Theory of Mind...
Participant is introduced to a container whose contents are inconsistent with its label and a protagonist who has not seen inside the container. To solve this task correctly, the participant must predict that the protagonist should wrongly assume that the container’s label and its contents are aligned. Eg. A bag filled with popcorn - but labeled 'Chocolate'.
There seems to be some evidence of emergence of Theory of Mind in Large Language Models like GPT-3.