Human Needs

Human needs are finite and classifiable. There are 9 fundamental human needs that are constant across time periods and cultures.

  • Subsistence: Food, water, shelter
  • Protection: Place to live, social security
  • Participation: Being part of decisions that affect our lives
  • Idleness: Free time or relaxation
  • Affection: Friends, love
  • Understanding: Leaning
  • Creation: Cooking, designing, writing
  • Identity: A sense of belonging/knowing oneself
  • Freedom: Ability to choose how we live our lives

From the book Human Scale Development, by Manfred Max Neef