Epistemology means the theory of knowledge. Main questions in Epistemology are...
- What is the nature of knowledge?
- What are the obstacles to the attainment of knowledge?
- What can be known?
- How does knowledge differ from belief?
How is knowledge obtained?
- Empirisism: Knowledge can be obtained with our senses. But it can't be trusted always(eg. Optical Illusions).
- Rationalism: Knowledge can be obtained through reasoning.
Types of Knowledge
- Propositional Knowledge: Knowledge of facts(Eg. 3-1=2, A dog has 4 legs). This is what Epistemology traditionally focuses on.
- Practical Knowledge: Skill/Know-how(Eg. driving).
What is Knowledge?
Knowledge is "Justified True Belief". Someone know a Proposition only if...
- Proposition is true
- Subject believes(not just a hunch) the Proposition
- Subject is justified in the belief
Exceptions to this are called a "Gettier Case". A justified true belief that was true by luck and not competence. Eg. You check time on a broken clock exactly at the correct time that is shown on the clock.